Refuse-derived fuel

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel / specified recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating solid waste (MSW) with a Waste converter technology. RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste.

Refuse derived fuel is made from domestic waste which includes biodegradable material as well as plastics, and has a lower calorific value than solid recovered fuel. Refuse derived fuel is used in combined heat and power facilities, many of them in Europe where they produce electricity and hot water for communal heating systems in the local area.

Compared to landfilling, the lower carbon emissions resulting from this approach to processing waste far outweigh the emissions associated with transporting the reclaimed fuel.

APPK is the largest producer of solid recovered fuel and refuse derived fuel in the country. We are able to use our network of facilities and ports to supply this material to customers in Thailand and other parts of ASIA. We are experienced in the production, transport and testing of these products and have the ability to tailor these products to individual customer needs.

RDF production plants

APP supplies specific technologies, processes and equipment for the conversion of waste to energy. This includes equipment for shredding, screening, classification and drying. The outcome is valuable goods, such as high-calorific RDF, as well as non-combustible fractions.

MSW and C&I waste contain many different materials that need to be separated mechanically into a high- and a low-calorific fraction. This process involves shredding, screening and classifying of the material. Metals, inerts and organics are removed; light fractions with high-calorific value (e.g. plastics, textile and paper) remain. The RDF fraction could be used in the cement industry, steel furnaces or power stations, substituting coal and oil.

The high-quality Universal Rotary Shear UC and Universal Granulator UG are used for primary and secondary shredding. Quickly interchangeable screens allow many different output sizes.

In order to optimize the output quality shredding can be combined with

  • Sorting and separation
    • according to size and form: drum screening, 3D-screens, fine screens
    • according to weight and form: air separation, ballistic separation
    • according to special material properties: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, optical separation of pre-defined fractions, e.g. plastics/PVC,
      wood, glass
  • Drying
    • Bio-drying
    • Thermal drying  (belt dryer, drum dryer)

The result is a homogeneous refuse derived fuel.

Input materials – Examples

  • Municipal solid waste (MSW)
  • Commercial and industrial waste (C&I)
  • Construction and demolition waste
  • Pulp & Paper industry rejects
  • Other waste fractions, bulky waste, organic waste, sorting residues

Process steps of the RDF production plant




  • Refuse derived fuels
  • Glass
  • Paper
  • Plastics
  • Minerals
  • Textiles
  • PVC
  • Wood

Benefits of the RDF production plants

  • Applied process know-how from APP ensures minimized operating costs with highly efficient process equipment
  • Single customer interface – entire system, all sub-processes and components from one source
  • Modular system designs allow tailor-made solutions for the specific waste streams
  • Highest cutting performance and capacity of the shredders
  • Extremely wear-resistant rotor, blade blocks and blades
  • Different blade system configuration depending on input material
  • Adjustable parameters for influencing the output quality and size
  • Clean output fractions
  • High-calorific RDF